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Achilles tendinitis is an overuse injury of the Achilles (uh-KILL-eez) tendon, the band of tissue that connects calf muscles at the back of the lower leg to your heel bone.
Achilles tendinitis most commonly occurs in runners who have suddenly increased the intensity or duration of their runs. It’s also common in middle-aged people who play sports, such as tennis or basketball, only on the weekends.
Most cases of Achilles tendinitis can be treated with relatively simple, at-home care under your doctor’s supervision. Self-care strategies are usually necessary to prevent recurring episodes. More-serious cases of Achilles tendinitis can lead to tendon tears (ruptures) that may require surgical repair.
Addison’s disease is an uncommon autoimmune disease, characterized by chronic and insufficient functioning of the outer layer of the adrenal gland. The adrenal glands are located atop each kidney and produce vital glucocorticoid hormones. Because of this chronic under-functioning of the adrenal glands, persons with Addison’s disease have a deficiency in the production of glucocorticoid hormones. Glucocorticoid hormones are involved in how the body utilizes and stores carbohydrates, protein, fat and blood sugar. The adrenal gland also plays a role in the immune response. A deficiency in glucocorticoid hormones causes an increase in the release of sodium and a decreased release of potassium in the urine, sweat, saliva, stomach and intestines. These changes can cause low blood pressure and increased water excretion that can in some cases lead to severe dehydration. Although there are many underlying factors in the development of adrenal insufficiencies, including destruction of the adrenal cortex due to diseases such as tuberculosis, the growth of tumors, non-autoimmune diseases amyloidosis and adrenoleukodystrophy, and atrophy of the gland due to prolonged use of cortical steroids used in the treatment of other conditions and illnesses, most cases of Addison’s disease are thought to be autoimmune in nature.
Agammaglobulinemia is an immune disorder related to antibody deficiency (hypogammaglobulinemia) and is manifested in a variety of immune deficiency disorders in which the immune system is compromised. This group of immune deficiencies may be the consequence of an inherited condition, an impaired immune system from known or unknown cause, a relation to autoimmune diseases, or a malignancy. Immunoglobulin deficiencies may be referred to by many different names, as there are several variables within the separate but related immune disorders; and there are also many subgroups. Antibody deficiency, immunoglobulin deficiency, and gamma globulin deficiency are all synonyms for hypogammaglobulinemia.
A damaging immune response by the body to a substance, especially pollen, fur, a particular food, or dust, to which it has become hypersensitive. An abnormal reaction of the body to a previously encountered allergen introduced by inhalation, ingestion, injection, or skin contact, often manifested by itchy eyes, runny nose, wheezing, skin rash, or diarrhea.
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder which is characterized by hair loss. Alopecia areata is found equally in both men and women. The disease can occur at any age, including childhood. The hair loss may result in round bald patches on the scalp (alopecia areata) or involve the loss of all facial and scalp hair (alopecia totalis). The loss of all body hair is called alopecia universalis. Alopecia postpartum is characterized by loss of significant hair following pregnancy and is usually temporary. When a patient is diagnosed with alopecia, the first question is usually about whether or not the hair will regrow. The answer is usually vague as each case is different. Regrowth of hair may occur in some patients; and in other, the hair loss is permanent.
Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia, a general term for memory loss and other cognitive abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60 percent to 80 percent of dementia cases.. Alzheimer’s is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. Symptoms usually develop slowly and get worse over time, becoming severe enough to interfere with daily tasks.
Amyloidosis is a disorder in which abnormal proteins build up in tissues and organs. The cause of primary amyloidosis is unknown. The condition is related to abnormal and excess production of antibodies by a type of immune cell called plasma cells. Clumps of abnormal proteins build up in certain organs. This reduces their ability to work correctly. Symptoms depend on the organs affected. This disease can affect the tongue, intestines, skeletal and smooth muscles, nerves, skin, ligaments, heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys. Symptoms include: abnormal heart rhythm, fatigue, numbness of hands or feet, shortness of breath, hoarseness or changing voice, and joint pain.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, is a progressive nervous system (neurological) disease that destroys nerve cells and causes disability.
ALS is often called Lou Gehrig’s disease, after the famous baseball player who was diagnosed with it. ALS is a type of motor neuron disease in which nerve cells gradually break down and die.
Doctors usually don’t know why ALS occurs. Some cases are inherited. ALS often begins with muscle twitching and weakness in a limb, or slurred speech. Eventually, ALS affects control of the muscles needed to move, speak, eat and breathe.
Angioedema is a related type of swelling that affects deeper layers in your skin, often around your face and lips. In most cases, hives and angioedema are harmless and don’t leave any lasting marks, even without treatment.
The most common treatment for hives and angioedema is antihistamine medication. Serious angioedema can be life-threatening if swelling causes your throat or tongue to block your airway.
Ankle pain: Pain in the ankle, a “hinged” joint. Ankle pain is commonly due to a sprain or tendinitis. The severity of ankle sprains ranges from mild (which can resolve within 24 hours) to severe (which can require surgical repair). Tendinitis of the ankle can be caused by trauma or inflammatory forms of arthritis.
Ankylosing spondylitis is an autoimmune disease and is a type of arthritis of the spine. It causes swelling between your vertebrae, which are the disks that make up your spine, and in the joints between your spine and pelvis. The disease is more common and more severe in men. It often runs in families. Early symptoms include back pain and stiffness. These problems often start in late adolescence or early adulthood. Over time, ankylosing spondylitis can fuse your vertebrae together, limiting movement. Symptoms can worsen or improve or stop altogether. The disease has no cure, but medicines can relieve the pain, swelling and other symptoms. Exercise can also help.
An ACL injury is the tearing of the anterior cruciate (KROO-she-ate) ligament (ACL) — one of the major ligaments in your knee. ACL injuries most commonly occur during sports that involve sudden stops, jumping or changes in direction — such as basketball, soccer, football, tennis, downhill skiing, volleyball and gymnastics.
Many people hear or feel a “pop” in the knee when an ACL injury occurs. Your knee may swell, feel unstable and become too painful to bear weight.
What is known is that aging is related to the decline in the body’s ability to regenerate new tissue, causing joints, blood vessels, and other parts of our anatomy to function differently than they do when we are younger.
New evidence indicates that a progressive decline in stem cell frequency and function may significantly contribute to the conditions related to aging…Scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) are studying the aging process in multiple organ systems (muscular, circulatory, nervous, etc.) in order to better understand how we age and develop potential therapeutic interventions (thru Stem Cells).
Some people are hypersensitive to specific antibiotics causing numerious side efftcs or an antibiotic does not destroy the bacteria. Antibiotic resistance: The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to resist the effects of an antibiotic to which they were once sensitive. Antibiotic resistance is a major concern of overuse of antibiotics. Also known as drug resistance. Antibiotic sensitivity or antibiotic susceptibility is the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.
Anti-GBM/Anti-TBM nephritis: Anti–glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody disease is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by autoantibodies that attack the walls of small blood vessels (capillaries) in the kidney. Anti-GBM disease that only affects the kidneys is called anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. This is a form of inflammation (-itis), which is injury to tissue caused by white blood cells (leukocytes). Glomerulonephritis due to Anti-GBM antibody disease is rare. It occurs in less than 1 case per million persons. It affects mostly young, white men aged 15-35. After age 50, women are more likely to be affected. The sexes overall are affected approximately at a male-female ratio of 3:2. It is seen very rarely in children. Some evidence suggests that genetics may play an important role in this disease. 60-70% of patients have both lung and kidney involvement. This is called Goodpasture’s Syndrome. 20-40% have only kidney involvement, which is called “renal limited” anti-GBM disease. Symptoms may include: chills and fever, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, chest pain, bleeding may cause anemia, respiratory failure, and kidney failure. Treatment of anti-GBM disease is focused on removing the anti-GBM antibody from the blood
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune syndrome caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. These antibodies are often referred to by different terms, including anticardiolipin antibody, lupus anticoagulant, and antiphospholipid antibody. APS can be primary or secondary, and also can be referred to by the name Hughes syndrome or “sticky blood”.
Arachnoiditis is a type of chronic pain caused by inflammation in the spinal canal.
Arachnoiditis is a chronic pain disorder caused by the inflammation of the arachnoid membrane and subarachnoid space that surround the nerves of the spinal cord. The inflammation can cause the meninges to adhere to the spinal cord and nerve roots. Because the nerve roots are affected, symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and burning pain is often felt in the lower back or legs.
Severe cases of arachnoiditis can result in the loss of motor function, loss of bladder and bowel control and even paralysis. Arachnoiditis can arise from infection, direct spinal injury, and chronic compression of the spinal nerves or invasive spinal surgeries.
Pulmonary hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries in your lungs and the right side of your heart.
In one form of pulmonary hypertension, tiny arteries in your lungs, called pulmonary arterioles, and capillaries become narrowed, blocked or destroyed. This makes it harder for blood to flow through your lungs, and raises pressure within your lungs’ arteries. As the pressure builds, your heart’s lower right chamber (right ventricle) must work harder to pump blood through your lungs, eventually causing your heart muscle to weaken and fail.
Some forms of pulmonary hypertension are serious conditions that become progressively worse and are sometimes fatal. Although some forms of pulmonary hypertension aren’t curable, treatment can help lessen symptoms and improve your quality of life.
Arthropathy is a disease of a joint. Although the terms “arthropathy” and arthritis have very similar meanings, the former is traditionally used to describe the following conditions:
• Reactive arthropathy (M02-M03) is caused by an infection, but not a direct infection of the synovial space. (See also Reactive arthritis)
• Enteropathic arthropathy (M07) is caused by colitis and related conditions.
• Crystal arthropathy (also known as crystal arthritis) (M10-M11) involves the deposition of crystals in the joint.
• In gout, the crystal is uric acid.
• In pseudogout/chondrocalcinosis/calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, the crystal is calcium pyrophosphate.
• Diabetic arthropathy (M14.2, E10-E14) is caused by diabetes.
• Neuropathic arthropathy (M14.6) is associated with a loss of sensation.
Joint pain can be discomfort, pain or inflammation arising from any part of a joint — including cartilage, bone, ligaments, tendons or muscles. Most commonly, however, joint pain refers to arthritis or arthralgia, which is inflammation or pain from within the joint itself.
Joint pain can be mild, causing soreness only after certain activities, or it can be severe, making even limited movement, particularly bearing weight, extremely painful.
Arthrosis, Degenerative: A type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of the cartilage of the joints. Degenerative arthritis is the most common form of arthritis, usually affecting the hands, feet, spine, and large weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees. Also known as osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease.
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger’s, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. As a milder autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it differs from other ASDs by relatively normal language and intelligence. Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and unusual use of language are common. Signs usually begin before two years old and typically last for a person’s entire life.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These episodes may occur a few times a day or a few times per week. Depending on the person, they may become worse at night or with exercise.
Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors include exposure to air pollution and allergens. Other potential triggers include medications such as aspirin and beta blockers. Diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time, and spirometry. Asthma is classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate. It may also be classified as atopic or non-atopic, where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction.
Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The coughing often occurs at night or early in the morning.
Asthma affects people of all ages, but it most often starts during childhood. In the United States, more than 25 million people are known to have asthma. About 7 million of these people are children.
Ataxia describes a lack of muscle control or coordination of voluntary movements, such as walking or picking up objects. A sign of an underlying condition, ataxia can affect various movements, creating difficulties with speech, eye movement and swallowing.
Persistent ataxia usually results from damage to the part of your brain that controls muscle coordination (cerebellum). Many conditions can cause ataxia, including alcohol abuse, certain medications, stroke, tumor, cerebral palsy, brain degeneration and multiple sclerosis. Inherited defective genes also can cause the condition.
Arteriosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body (arteries) become thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow to your organs and tissues. Healthy arteries are flexible and elastic, but over time, the walls in your arteries can harden, a condition commonly called hardening of the arteries.
Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, but the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Atherosclerosis refers to the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls (plaque), which can restrict blood flow.
The plaque can burst, triggering a blood clot. Although atherosclerosis is often considered a heart problem, it can affect arteries anywhere in your body. Atherosclerosis may be preventable and is treatable.
Autism spectrum disorder is a condition related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others, causing problems in social interaction and communication. The disorder also includes limited and repetitive patterns of behavior. The term “spectrum” in autism spectrum disorder refers to the wide range of symptoms and severity.
Autism spectrum disorder includes conditions that were previously considered separate — autism, Asperger’s syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and an unspecified form of pervasive developmental disorder. Some people still use the term “Asperger’s syndrome,” which is generally thought to be at the mild end of autism spectrum disorder.
Autism spectrum disorder begins in early childhood and eventually causes problems functioning in society — socially, in school and at work, for example. Often children show symptoms of autism within the first year. A small number of children appear to develop normally in the first year, and then go through a period of regression between 18 and 24 months of age when they develop autism symptoms.
An autoimmune disease is a condition in which your immune system mistakenly attacks your body. … Normally, the immune system can tell the difference between foreign cells and your own cells. In an autoimmune disease, the immune system mistakes part of your body — like your joints or skin — as foreign.
Autoinflammatory diseases refer to problems with the immune system, which usually fights off viruses, bacteria, and infection. It results when your immune cells attack your body by mistake. … In most cases, your doctor will prescribe medications to reduce pain and swelling or that act on the immune system.
Axonal & neuronal neuropathy (AMAN) is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome, an autoimmune disease. It is characterized by acute paralysis and loss of reflexes without sensory loss. The syndrome typically presents as a progressive symmetric paralysis (loss of muscle function) with areflexia (absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee jerk reaction), often causing respiratory failure. Antibodies attack the coating of the motor neurons without causing inflammation. It does not affect sensory neurons, so sensation remains intact despite loss of movement.
Babesiosis is a rare, sometimes severe, disease caused by the bite of a tick infected with Babesia microti, a microscopic (tiny, not seen without a microscope) parasite that infects red blood cells. In New York State, the Babesia species that infects people is Babesia microti, which is spread by the bite of an infected blacklegged (or deer) tick. Babesiosis can affect people of any age.
Baló’s concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare disorder usually considered a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its correlation with MS remains unclear and controversial. Baló’s disease is a demyelinating (damage to the nerve sheath) disorder of the central nervous system in which the myelin (the fatty substance covering nerve fibers) is damaged. It is characterized by a severe, rapidly evolving clinical course, and by unusual nervous system changes. Often large tumor-like plaques (lesions) that are found to destroy the sheath of the nerve are present. Studies indicate that autoimmune factors may play a role in its development. Autoimmune disorders are caused when the body’s natural defenses against “foreign” or invading organisms begin to attack healthy tissue for unknown reasons resulting in inflammation (swelling). Baló’s disease appears to be most common in Asians and in people from the Philippines; it affects males and females with similar frequency. Baló’s disease usually appears in adulthood but childhood cases have been reported.
Becker muscular dystrophy: Signs and symptoms are similar to those of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but tend to be milder and progress more slowly. Symptoms generally begin in the teens but may not occur until the mid-20s or even later.
See Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Behcet’s disease is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease involving inflammation of blood vessels, called vasculitis, throughout the body. It is a rare disease, most commonly found in the Eastern Mediterranean countries and in eastern Asia. It affects more young men than women in those countries, but in the US it affects more women, most often in their 20s and 30s. The central nervous system, heart, and intestinal tract may be involved. Because this disease is so rare and it’s symptoms overlap those of other diseases, it may be very difficult to diagnose. Spontaneous remission may occur, which can add to the difficulty in diagnosis.
Cicatricial pemphigoid (also known as benign mucosal pemphigoid, mucous membrane pemphigoid, or benign mucous membrane pemphigoid) is a rare chronic autoimmune blistering disease characterized by erosive skin lesions of the mucous membranes and skin that results in scarring of at least some sites of involvement. The autoimmune reaction most commonly affects the mouth, causing lesions in the gums, but it can also affect areas of mucous membrane elsewhere in the body, such as the sinuses, genitals and anus. When the cornea of the eye is affected, repeated scarring may result in blindness. The management depends upon the severity of the condition. Simple measures that can be taken include avoidance of hard, sharp or rough foods, and taking care when eating. Good oral hygiene is also usually advised, and professional oral hygiene measures such as periodontal scaling.
Perhaps the simplest and most frequently done cosmetic stem cell procedure is injecting stem cells into the skin and supporting tissues of the face. The face is numbed using a topical cream. Stem cells are injected directly into the face using small needles. This has come to be referred to as a “Stem Cell Face Lift”. While this has been shown to tighten the skin, improve small lines, and lighten age spots, it DOES NOT do what a surgical face lift can do. Its’ advantages are a facial rejuvenation without significant downtime. Multiple injections are required, but the procedure is very safe and requires only local and topical anesthesia. Stem Cell therapy is still considered investigational and procedures are done “off-label”
Bone spurs are bony projections that develop along bone edges. Bone spurs (osteophytes) often form where bones meet each other — in your joints. They can also form on the bones of your spine.
The main cause of bone spurs is the joint damage associated with osteoarthritis. Most bone spurs cause no symptoms and can go undetected for years. They might not require treatment. If treatment is needed, it depends on where spurs are located and how they affect your health.
Most bone spurs cause no signs or symptoms. You might not realize you have bone spurs until an X-ray for another condition reveals the growths. In some cases, though, bone spurs can cause pain and loss of motion in your joints.
Specific symptoms depend on where the bone spurs are. Examples include:
* Knee. Bone spurs in your knee can make it painful to extend and bend your leg.
* Spine. On your vertebrae, bone spurs can narrow the space that contains your spinal cord. These bone spurs can pinch the spinal cord or its nerve roots and can cause weakness or numbness in your arms or legs.
* Hip. Bone spurs can make it painful to move your hip, although you might feel the pain in your knee. Depending on their placement, bone spurs can reduce the range of motion in your hip joint.
Buerger’s disease (thromboangiitis obliterans) is a rare disease of the arteries and veins in the arms and legs. In Buerger’s disease, your blood vessels become inflamed, swell and can become blocked with blood clots (thrombi).
This eventually damages or destroys skin tissues and may lead to infection and gangrene. Buerger’s disease usually first shows in your hands and feet and may eventually affect larger areas of your arms and legs.
Virtually everyone diagnosed with Buerger’s disease smokes cigarettes or uses other forms of tobacco, such as chewing tobacco. Quitting all forms of tobacco is the only way to stop Buerger’s disease. For those who don’t quit, amputation of all or part of a limb is sometimes necessary.
Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune disorder. If you have it, your immune system attacks healthy cells in your skin and mouth, causing blisters and sores. No one knows the cause. Bullous pemphigoid does not spread from person to person. It does not appear to be inherited. But some people’s genes put them more at risk for bullous pemphigoid. Bullous pemphigoid is most common in older adults and may be fatal for older, sick patients. Bullous pemphigoid usually occurs in elderly persons and is rare in young people.
A calcaneal spur (or heel spur) is a bony outgrowth from the calcaneal tuberosity (heel bone). Calcaneal spurs are typically detected by a radiographic examination (commonly referred to as an “x-ray”). When a foot is exposed to constant stress, calcium deposits build up on the bottom of the heel bone.
Cardiomyopathy (kahr-dee-o-my-OP-uh-thee) is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for your heart to pump blood to the rest of your body. Cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure.
The main types of cardiomyopathy include dilated, hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease in which the heart muscle (myocardium) becomes abnormally thick (hypertrophied). The thickened heart muscle can make it harder for the heart to pump blood.
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that causes numbness, tingling and other symptoms in the hand and arm. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by a compressed nerve in the carpal tunnel, a narrow passageway on the palm side of your wrist.
The anatomy of your wrist, health problems and possibly repetitive hand motions can contribute to carpal tunnel syndrome.
Proper treatment usually relieves the tingling and numbness and restores wrist and hand function.
Oroya fever or Carrion’s disease is an infectious disease produced by Bartonella bacilliformis infection.
Castleman disease (CD) is a rare disease of lymph nodes and related tissues. It is also called giant lymph node hyperplasia, and angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (AFH). Castleman disease can occur in a localized (unicentric) or widespread (multicentric) form. It was first described by Dr. Benjamin Castleman in the 1950s. CD is not cancer. Instead, it is called a lymphoproliferative disorder. This means there is an abnormal overgrowth of cells of the lymph system that is similar in many ways to lymphomas (cancers of lymph nodes). Treatment and outlook vary, depending on the type of Castleman disease you have. The localized type can usually be successfully treated with surgery. Sometimes associated with HIV infection, multicentric Castleman disease can be life-threatening. Multicentric Castleman disease is also associated with other cell-proliferation disorders, including Kaposi’s sarcoma and POEMS syndrome.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease in which people can’t eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine. If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small intestine. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. It is found mainly in foods but may also be in other products like medicines, vitamins and supplements, lip balm, and even the glue on stamps and envelopes. Celiac disease affects each person differently. Symptoms may occur in the digestive system, or in other parts of the body. One person might have diarrhea and abdominal pain, while another person may be irritable or depressed. Irritability is one of the most common symptoms in children. Some people have no symptoms. (see also Dermatitis Herpetiformis).
Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a blockage of this vein that causes the vein to leak blood and excess fluid into the retina. This fluid often collects in the area of the retina responsible for central vision called the macula. When the macula is affected, central vision may become blurry.
Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a blockage of this vein that causes the vein to leak blood and excess fluid into the retina. This fluid often collects in the area of the retina responsible for central vision called the macula. When the macula is affected, central vision may become blurry.
Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by damage that occurs to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth.
Signs and symptoms appear during infancy or preschool years. In general, cerebral palsy causes impaired movement associated with abnormal reflexes, floppiness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, abnormal posture, involuntary movements, unsteady walking, or some combination of these.
People with cerebral palsy may have problems swallowing and commonly have eye muscle imbalance, in which the eyes don’t focus on the same object. People with cerebral palsy also may suffer reduced range of motion at various joints of their bodies due to muscle stiffness.
Cerebral palsy’s effect on functional abilities varies greatly. Some affected people can walk while others can’t. Some people show normal or near-normal intellectual capacity, but others may have intellectual disabilities. Epilepsy, blindness or deafness also may be present.
Chagas disease is caused by a parasite called Trypanosoma cruzi, sometimes called a kissing bug and related to the African trypanosome that causes sleeping sickness. It is one of the major health problems in South America. Due to immigration, the disease also affects people in the United States. The infected blood-sucking bugs spread it. When the bug bites you, usually on your face, it leaves behind infected waste. You can get the infection if you rub it in your eyes or nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood transfusion, a donated organ or from mother to baby during pregnancy. If you notice symptoms, they might include: fever, flu-like symptoms, a rash, or a swollen eyelid. These early symptoms usually go away. However, if you don’t treat the infection, it stays in your body. Later, it can cause serious intestinal and heart problems. A physical exam and blood tests can diagnose it. You may also need tests to see whether the disease has affected your intestines and heart. Medicines can kill the parasite, especially early on. You can also treat related problems.
Chronic bronchitis is one of the two most common conditions that contribute to COPD. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. It’s characterized by daily cough and mucus (sputum) production.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complicated disorder characterized by extreme fatigue that can’t be explained by any underlying medical condition. The fatigue may worsen with physical or mental activity, but doesn’t improve with rest.
This condition is also known as systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) or myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Sometimes it’s abbreviated as ME/CFS.
The cause of chronic fatigue syndrome is unknown, although there are many theories — ranging from viral infections to psychological stress. Some experts believe chronic fatigue syndrome might be triggered by a combination of factors.
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare autoimmune disorder in which there is swelling of nerve roots and destruction of the covering (myelin sheath) over the nerves. This causes weakness, paralysis, and/or impairment in motor function, especially of the arms and legs. Sensory loss may also be present, causing numbness, tingling, and burning sensations. The motor and sensory impairments are usually found on both sides of the body. The severity of CIDP can vary from mild to severe. CIDP can affect any age group, and the onset may begin anytime throughout life.
Intractable pain, also known as Intractable Pain Disease or IP, is a severe, constant pain that is not curable by any known means and which causes a bed or house-bound state and early death if not adequately treated, usually with opioids and/or interventional procedures.
Chronic pain syndrome (CPS) is a common problem that presents a major challenge to health-care providers because of its complex natural history, unclear etiology, and poor response to therapy. CPS is a poorly defined condition. In chronic pain, the duration parameter is used arbitrarily.
Prostatitis is swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized gland situated directly below the bladder in men. The prostate gland produces fluid (semen) that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostatitis often causes painful or difficult urination. Other symptoms include pain in the groin, pelvic area or genitals and sometimes flu-like symptoms. Prostatitis affects men of all ages but tends to be more common in men 50 or younger. The condition has a number of causes. Sometimes the cause isn’t identified. If prostatitis is caused by a bacterial infection, it can usually be treated with antibiotics. Depending on the cause, prostatitis can come on gradually or suddenly. It might improve quickly, either on its own or with treatment. Some types of prostatitis last for months or keep recurring (chronic prostatitis).
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) Although its definition is still evolving, many doctors and articles describe CRMO as an autoimmune related disease. The origin of this disease however, is unclear. It is “multifocal” because it can erupt in different sites, primarily in bones. It is a rare condition (1:1,000,000). It comprises periodic bone pain, fever, and the appearance of multiple bone lesions that can occur in any skeletal site. Genetics appears to play a role, but the diagnosis can be difficult. Although adults can be affected, CRMO most often affects children, more commonly girls than boys. The peak age of incidence is around 10 years, with the range being 4 to 55 years. Children show symptoms ranging from pain, deep aching pain, limping, to fever. The metaphyseal area of long bones, the clavicle, and the shoulder girdle are common locations where CRMO is found. Other sites such as the spine, ankle, and foot have been reported. Dermatological (skin) manifestations may occur and include psoriasis, acne, and pustules on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a form of chronic pain that usually affects an arm or a leg. CRPS typically develops after an injury, a surgery, a stroke or a heart attack. The pain is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. Complex regional pain syndrome is uncommon, and its cause isn’t clearly understood. Treatment is most effective when started early. In such cases, improvement and even remission are possible.
Churg-Strauss syndrome, also known as allergic granulomatosis or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by accumulated antibodies, inflammation of blood vessels, and abnormal clustering of white blood cells. An allergic reaction or asthma may precede the syndrome’s development by several years. Although Churg-Strauss syndrome patients may have a prior history of pulmonary disease, the syndrome tends to impair kidneys or other organs or to cause nerve damage in affected areas. Diagnosis is difficult because early symptoms mimic common flu. Lung tissue infiltrations (short-term or persistent), fever, and weight loss are often initial signs. Prompt diagnosis and treatment (with corticosteroids) increase a patient’s chances of resuming a normal life. Onset typically occurs from 15-70 years of age, and the disease affects both males and females.
Cirrhosis is a late stage of scarring (fibrosis) of the liver caused by many forms of liver diseases and conditions, such as hepatitis and chronic alcoholism. The liver carries out several necessary functions, including detoxifying harmful substances in your body, cleaning your blood and making vital nutrients. Cirrhosis occurs in response to damage to your liver. Each time your liver is injured, it tries to repair itself. In the process, scar tissue forms. As cirrhosis progresses, more and more scar tissue forms, making it difficult for the liver to function. Decompensated cirrhosis is the term used to describe the development of specific complications resulting from the changes brought on by cirrhosis. Decompensated cirrhosis is life-threatening. The liver damage done by cirrhosis generally can’t be undone. But if liver cirrhosis is diagnosed early and the cause is treated, further damage can be limited and, rarely, reversed.
Cogan’s syndrome is defined as nonsyphilitic interstitial keratitis (an inflammation of the eye) and bilateral audiovestibular deficits (hearing problems and dizziness). It is more common in Caucasians than in other races. Onset of the disease is generally a brief episode of inflammatory eye disease, most commonly interstitial keratitis. This eye condition causes pain, lacrimation (tearing of the eye) and photophobia (eye pain with exposure to light). Shortly following these ocular (eye) symptoms, patients develop bilateral audiovestibular (ear) symptoms, including hearing loss, vertigo (dizziness) and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Approximately half of patients ultimately develop complete hearing loss, but only a minority experience permanent visual loss. Other symptoms that may occur include headache, fever, arthralgia (joint pain), and systemic vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels). The symptoms typically deteriorate progressively within days. It is currently thought that Cogan’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease. The inflammation in the eye and ear are due to the patient’s own immune system producing antibodies that attack the inner ear and eye tissue.
Cold agglutinin disease is a form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by cold-reacting autoantibodies (a type of protein produced by the immune system). Primary cold agglutinin disease is usually associated with monoclonal (produced from a single ancestral cell by repeated cellular replication) cold-reacting autoantibodies. Primary cold agglutinin disease is chronic and occurs after the fifth decade of life, with a peak incidence in the seventh and eighth decades. Secondary cold agglutinin disease is predominantly caused by infection and lymphoproliferative disorders in which lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced in excessive quantities. It is essential with chronic cold agglutinin disease to keep all body parts warm at all times and avoid cooling of body parts. Appropriate clothing is necessary for cold environments, and avoidance of cold foods and working in cold storage areas is also important.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting inflammation and ulcers (sores) in your digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum. Symptoms usually develop over time, rather than suddenly. Ulcerative colitis can be debilitating and can sometimes lead to life-threatening complications. While it has no known cure, treatment can greatly reduce signs and symptoms of the disease and even bring about long-term remission.
Congenital heart block is a rare complication of pregnancy associated with Sjögren Syndrome (an autoimmune syndrome) that may result in the death of the fetus or infant, or the need for pacing in the newborn or at a later stage. Doctors might detect congenital heart block before or after a baby is born. Certain diseases that may occur during pregnancy can cause heart block in a baby. Heart block is a problem that occurs with the heart’s electrical system. This system controls the rate and rhythm of heartbeats. (“Rate” refers to the number of times your heart beats per minute. “Rhythm” refers to the pattern of regular or irregular pulses produced as the heart beats.) With each heartbeat, an electrical signal spreads across the heart from the upper to the lower chambers. As it travels, the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is slowed or disrupted as it moves through the heart.
Congenital. This type affects boys and girls and is apparent at birth or before age 2. Some forms progress slowly and cause only mild disability, while others progress rapidly and cause severe impairment.
A corneal ulcer is a corneal epithelial defect with underlying inflammation (which soon results in necrosis of corneal tissue) due to invasion by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or Acanthamoeba. It can be initiated by mechanical trauma or nutritional deficiencies.
Perhaps the simplest and most frequently done cosmetic stem cell procedure is injecting stem cells into the skin and supporting tissues of the face. The face is numbed using a topical cream. Stem cells are injected directly into the face using small needles. This has come to be referred to as a “Stem Cell Face Lift”. While this has been shown to tighten the skin, improve small lines, and lighten age spots, it DOES NOT do what a surgical face lift can do. Its’ advantages are a facial rejuvenation without significant downtime. Multiple injections are required, but the procedure is very safe and requires only local and topical anesthesia. Stem Cell therapy is still considered investigational and procedures are done “off-label”.
Palindromic rheumatism (PR) is an autoimmune related disease characterized by sudden, multiple, and recurring attacks of joint pain and swelling, typically in the hands and feet. Each episode may last from several hours to several days. The frequency of attacks also varies, from one episode a day to several during the course of a year. Between attacks, the symptoms disappear and the affected joints appear normal on x-ray exams. The cause of palindromic rheumatism is unknown, although a possible allergic origin has been suggested. There may also be a clinical association between antiphospholipid syndrome and palindromic rheumatism. Some individuals with palindromic rheumatism develop chronic joint inflammation and go on to develop rheumatoid arthritis.
The PRP therapy improves the quality of your skin! Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) therapy, also known as a “vampire facelift”. The PRP-facelift is a non-surgical facelift for rejuvenating the skin. With this treatment you receive injections of your own blood.